Cervical Cancer

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Overview of Uterine Cancer

Cervix is the lower most part of the uterus which is visualised during a routine gynecological examination. Cervical cancer develops when there is an uncontrolled growth of cells lining the cervix. Cancer of the cervix is the second most common cancer among Indian females after breast cancer.

Ninety-nine percent of cases of cervical cancer are caused by high risk strains of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) which is acquired via sexual contact. Majority (80%) of the females clear the virus on their own within a time frame of 2 years but in remaining 20% females, the virus remains latent in the cervical cells causing a persistent infection which results in precancerous changes progressing to cervical cancer.

The time period between HPV infection to development of precancerous lesions finally leading to cervical cancer can vary between 10-30 years. This natural history of progression of the disease provides us with a long window of opportunity to perform screening tests to identify HPV infection and treat precancerous lesions. Thus screening tests for cervical cancer help to identify and treat the lesions in cervix prior to development of cancer making cervical cancer a preventable cancer

Most Common Screening Tests of Cervical Cancer

The two most common screening tests include Pap smear and HPV DNA testing both of which are painless, non-invasive tests that can easily be done on an outpatient basis during a routine gynae check-up.

High Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer

Certain high risk factors which increase the likelihood of developing cervical cancer include, early age at first coitus, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, low socio-economic status, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, history of smoking, immunocompromised state (infection with HIV/AIDS), history of STD’s (sexually transmitted diseases) and lastly lack of awareness and screening. So get an instant appointemnt in delhi, the best cancer specialist in Muzaffarnagar.


Symptoms of cervical cancer include irregular vaginal bleeding, bleeding between two menstrual cycles or after sexual intercourse, postmenopausal bleeding, foul smelling vaginal discharge, back pain, pelvic pain and lower limb swelling along with bladder and rectal symptoms in advanced cases.

Women with above symptoms should get themselves examined by a doctor who will take a cervical biopsy to confirm malignancy. Imaging studies including MRI, CT, PET-CT are usually advised to look for local and distant spread of the disease.


Treatment depends on the stage of cancer. Early stages are managed by surgery which can be done via minimally invasive robotic route or open technique whereas advanced stages are treated by combination of radiation and chemotherapy.

Common symptoms of early cervical cancer include:

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